Fishing vessels

 

At the 18th century, the whaling develops, in particular from the ports of Nantucket and New Bedford, New England.

The three-masted ship SUSSEX with 17 men on board drives out the whale in the south of Australia and New Zealand. 

PRUDENT surfs about it for London Whaling Company of 1811 to 1835 in the southern seas  RHONE built in 1849 is bought in 1851 by the Australian agent of British whalers.
The motorization will involve a rise for the whale hunting. 
BRANSFIELD whaler built in 1924 for A/S Hektor in Middlesbrough (GB) 217 tons 110.4' x 23.l'; 3-cyl., triple-exp. engine, 75 HP. 
She called several times at Port Stanley; sold several times, she is finally demolished in 1986.

SOVIETSKAYA UKRAINA is in 1959 the biggest whale factory ship in the world. At 32 024 tons, she has accommodation for about 650 persons, including a crew of 500. She has a whale processing plant capable of handling a total of 65 whales in 24 hours.

Greenpeace actions brake whales extermination ; unfortunately, some countries as Japan continue to kill the whales, using scientific pretexts and do not hesitate to collide with ships used to stop them.
The bisquines left for 3/4 days of fisheries ; they moved away to several tens of miles of the coast and unloaded their fishing in the nearest port.

JOLIE BRISE, pilot-cutter built in 1913 at Albert Paumelle yard in Le Havre, was used for tuna fishing in the Gulf of Biscay.
The Dutch lugger TECLA used to fish the herring in the North Sea from 1915 to 1925. Shee was reconverted in ship for charter voyages.
The two sailing ships take part in tall ships races.

TECLA

Appeared at the 18th century, the luggers, small three masted sailing ships, which were originaly warships, are rigged around 1820 for the herring fishing. Then the luggers are replaced by the dundees. Sailing ships with two masts, a length varying from 30 to 35 meters, they take on board a crew of 22 to 25 men and are generally good stable “walkers”.

Sacré Cœur de Jésus is a herring  dundee from Boulogne restaured in 1907 by Rallier du Baty to sail to Kerguelen and renamed JB CHARCOT.

The 4-masted schooner CREOULA is used for fishing from 1937 to 1973. The lower hull was divided into three sections, one part  for storage and provisions, one for holding salt fish and one third for the engine room and fishing equipment.. In an average year, CREOULA brought back 800 tons of salted cod and 60 tons of cod-liver oil. 

From the 16th century to the 20th century, terre-neuvas left  the large ports of the English Channel, like St Malo as well as Spain, of Portugal or Great Britain to fish cod on the large fishing grounds of Newfoundland, off Canada. This fishing ended because of the rarefaction of fish at the end of the 20th century.

On the two sides of the Atlantic, schooners are chartered

The German Democratic Republic yards delivered to the Soviet Union  trawler-canners of ATLANTIK III type measuring 8000 tjb and having a production capacity of 100,000 conventional cans per day.
During and after the Second world war, the fishing fleets adopt new technologies (radio, radar, sonar, nets in nylon) and of the hydraulic fishing machines. Increasingly powerful ships can locate and catch more fish and them to transfer onto longer distances. From 1959 to 1974, the fleet of ships in Atlantic of 50 tons and more quintuple its capacity.

ROBIN Mr. LEE, 70 m long trawler, ex-SAINT-DENIS of the Interpêche company. The 6 trawlers of this owner fished more than 10000 tons of fish a year on Newfoundland  grounds before stopping in 1993, after the moratorium on fishing with cod off Newfoundland issued by Canada in its territorial waters. “Saint-Denis” was jumboïsed in 1995 by the shipyard Piriou in Concarneau. 

Fishing the krill: at Cumberland Bay, the Korean trawler KWANG JA HO transfers its catches to the refrigerating factory ship for a fast transport at the markets.

The longliners use a long line, called the main line, with baited hooks. 42.9 m length, ARGOS FROYANES is the first diesel-electric longliner; she fishes all the year the southern toothfish in the Antarctic, in Ross Sea  and around the South Georgia.

Korea, at the time of the first five-year plan launched in 1962, decided to increase its investment in industrial fishing, by building ships of great capacity. The Korean production covers 75 varieties of fish, 20 kinds of shellfish and 15 species of algae. Fishing was also in the Sixties one of most important posts of exchange, just after mining industry. The five-year plan will lead to the construction of ships of great capacity.
Today, in France, coastal or deep-sea artisanal fishing concerns crews which make tides of a few hours to several days and up to 15 days with ships boats of small and average size (6 to 24 meters); the high-sea fishing is practiced especially on trawlers from 30 to 50 meters for tides from 10 to 15 days, where the fish is very often conditioned on board. One counts 10 to 25 men per boat.

The scallop fishing ships (coquillier in French) use dredgers spun which excavate the bottom and deterrent the hidden shells. In St Pierre-et-Miquelon, a scallop breeding extends on 500 ha.

The back trawl is a pocket in funnel, trailled between two waters (pelagic trawling) or on the bottom (bottom trawling).  The seine is a turning net: the seine boats capture many fish species (mackerel, tuna, sardine, anchovy, capelan…), and often in great quantity.
The net allows a selective fishing by the size of its meshs for species like the plate, turbot or crawfish. Crab traps contain a soft food for shellfishs (lobsters, lobsters, crabs,…) and are hauled on the boats

From its origin, Dunkirk practices the herring fishing. Until the middle of the 18th century, this activity dominates, then the Dunkirk inhabitants go towards fishing in Iceland which generates an intense economic activity of which construction and naval repair; it became a large industrial port, which extends over a 17 km length.

Douarnenez was a high place of fishing to the sardine (3 714 tons in 2006), supplemented by tuna and lobster. Its port comprises the fishing port of Tréboul, in a small handle almost closed by the island Tristan, the commercial port of Port-Rhu located in the estuary of Pouldavid, the large Port, which is the true fishing port  Guilvinec, first artisanal fishing port, developed with the arrival of the train in Quimper, at the 19th century, the mackerel and sardine fishermen ensure the expansion of the port.

Boulogne-sur-Mer occupies a key position on the international market of the fishing and the products of the sea. 1st French fishing port with a flotilla diversified of almost 150 boats. 

In Concarneau, flotilla comprises 154 ships of which:

  • 7 deep-sea industrial trawlers from 30 to 38 meters (9 to 10 embarked sailors), 

  • 2 trawlers craftsmen from 16 to 24 meters (5 to 7 embarked sailors) 

  • 95 trawlers of inshore fishing from 9 to 16 meters (1 to 4 embarked sailors)

The great fishing trawlers, on fishery during several months, are true factories arranged to fish, treat and freeze fish. The bottom trawl makes it possible to capture of 500 kg to several tons at each trawl hauling.

Built in Italy in 1973 for the Société Nouvelle des Pêches Lointaines (SNPL), FINLANDE III is 86.85 meters long for a width of 13.6 meters and is been driven by an engine of 3600 hp. 
During the Cold war, certain Soviet trawlers collected more information by their antennas than they did not fish fish in their nets. Others, such ALEKSANDR KOSAREV were
trawler-factories of more than 100 m length, largely at the origin of overfishing.

MARMOUSET is an industrial trawler built in 1971 on a steel hull by shipyard SICCN in Saint-Malo. L x l x d: 46.70 m x 10.30 m x 4.30 m Gross tonnage: 634 tons  Engine 1800 hp Speed:14.5 knots Refrigered hold of 390 m3 Pêcheries Manesse and Sénéchal 

NORMANDE is built in 1974 on a steel hull 
L x l x d: 46.34 m x 11.52 m x 6.73 m Gross tonnage: 690.40 t Engine 2000 hp Speed: 14 knots. this trawler was part of the Interpêche company (in Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon).

Constraining legislations on the maritime field, it development of piracy, the will to protect from the species brought to the creation of surveillance duties of fishings, equipped with boats

The fishery protection ship DORADA is an old trawler built in Gdynia, taken acquired in 1991 by a New Zealand owner. Dorada Marine Ltd transforms it in 97 for the protection of the conservation zone of the Falkland Islands.
Tonnage 2,360 tons, 708 Net L x l x d 79 m x 14.62 m x 5.25 m.

OSIRIS is an old lobster boat seized for illegal fishing by French navy in January 2003; in October 2003, she becomes patrol craft for 150 days of patrol approximately each year in complement of the ships of the navy.
53.00 x 9,50 x 7.12 m Tonnage 729 tons

105 m length, OCEANIC VIKING patrols in Australian water; old supply ship, converted into cables layer in 2000 and withdrawn of the service in 2011.

The safeguarding of the fisheries passes by the knowledge of species. Research on the species, their dissemination, themgrowth is carried out by ships like AFRICANA. Launched in 1980,dimensions 77.85 x 15.25 x 5.70 m. 10 officers, 23 crew and 19 scientists 

 

 
Ships in Antarctic (3) presents other fishing vessels

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